The Night of the Burning

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Against the expressed wishes of the Mapoon Aboriginal people, they were forcibly relocated to Bamaga, about to km to the north. The burning of Mapoon was the culmination of a vicious campaign to remove the Aboriginal residents. The biggest deposit of bauxite in the world and the desire to develop an aluminum industry in Queensland was what drove their policy. Mapoon was established as a church mission at the mouth of the Batavia River in on the traditional lands of the Tjungundji people. It was run by Moravian missionaries on behalf of the Presbyterian Church of Australia with some financial support from the Queensland Government.

As the influence of the mission spread more traditional owner groups were incorporated into the community. Following the gazetting of Mapoon as an industrial school in , many children, stolen throughout the Gulf country, were brought to Mapoon. The other role of the missions—besides spreading the Christian message—was to provide cheap labour. Mapoon labour was used extensively in the pastoral industry and on the pearling fleets stationed at Thursday Island. Working in the pearling industry, however, had disastrous consequences for the Aboriginal workers.

Many died from lung complaints or through the exposure to infectious diseases. During , only one third of the young Mapoon men who worked in the industry, survived. Despite knowing the source of these diseases, the missionaries cooperated with the industry to gain revenue for the mission.

The missions were essentially prison camps. Authorities had the power to remove children, forbid marriages, censor mail, compel them to work for low wages, withhold wages, control bank accounts, and seize property. The boys have also paid for a new pump… Most of the young men go beche-de-mer fishing and earn a few pounds. All the timber is sawn and dressed by the blacks… The soil of the garden has all been made by seaweed manure, carried from the beach with incredible labour. The Aboriginal people survived measles, tuberculosis and hookworm, to build homes and a community.

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The meagre supplies they received from the mission store was supplemented with traditional food. The Mapoon people managed to pass on their culture in spite of deliberate attempts to destroy it. This is our tribal land…I hope we will never leave this place. The initial impetus to close Mapoon was a desire by the then Labor government to cut costs. Alternative ways to earn income were considered, but once the vast deposits of bauxite had been discovered, these plans were completely shelved.

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Nearly square kilometres of Aboriginal Reserve land was given to Comalco with the passing of the Comalco Act. The only condition was to establish an alumina refinery in Queensland within five to seven years. Royalties and rent paid to the government were severely discounted and there was no compensation at all for Aboriginal people.

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Assimilation was official government policy at the time. Similar arguments are being made today about Northern Territory communities, so it is worth looking at the experience of Weipa where some of the people from Mapoon were forced to relocate. Like Mapoon, Weipa was an Aboriginal community that lost their land to the mining companies. But the company had other ideas and tried to relocate the Weipa mission.

But the jobs, housing and opportunity never developed. This amounted to less than pounds per house.

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  • At the same time the company was spending 14, pounds per house for its white workforce. The Aboriginal houses had no stoves, handbasins, sinks, plumbing, external laundries or toilets. More Details Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up.

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      The Night Of: Episode 4 Burning Questions | TV Guide

      Sort order. Start your review of The Night of the Burning. Grammar schools and high schools throughout Germany now had National Socialist teachers of questionable ability forming young minds in strict adherence to the Party motto: "The supreme task of the schools is the education of youth for the service of Volk and State in the National Socialist spirit. During the war years, the Hitler Youth organization gradually supplanted the traditional elementary and secondary school system and became the main force educating German children.

      And the quality of that education continually worsened. Students emerging from the elite Adolf Hitler Schools were in superb physical condition and thoroughly drilled in Nazi ideology, but lacked basic skills in math and science. Nazi scientists, educated before Hitler, complained they were hindered in developing new super-weapons by the recruitment of graduates from the Nazified school system.

      German Army leaders also complained that young officer candidates displayed "a simply inconceivable lack of elementary knowledge. They didn't even know enough to capitalize the first letter of a proper name.

      Nazi book burnings

      But for Hitler, these shortcomings really didn't matter. The school system now produced what he needed — unquestioning young men ready to obediently serve the Fatherland unto death amid Nazi slogans such as: Believe, Obey, Fight! In my Ordensburgen [special Nazi colleges] a youth will grow up before which the world will tremble.

      I want a brutal, domineering, fearless, cruel youth.

      The night of the burning books

      Youth must be all that. It must bear pain. There must be nothing weak and gentle about it.


      The free, splendid beast of prey must once again flash from its eyes That is how I will eradicate thousands of years of human domestication That is how I will create the New Order. And in this New Order, anyone refusing to conform was simply removed from society and sent away for a special kind of re-education within the confines of a concentration camp.

      There they would be broken physically, mentally and spiritually until they either submitted completely or died.

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